In order to facilitate various activities of the Poverty Monitoring Master Plan, the Government has planned a series of censuses and surveys to assist in policy and planning and to track changes in the wellbeing of the population of Tanzania. Therefore, the 2019/20 National Sample Census of Agriculture results aim at providing useful information that will contribute in filling the data gaps, thus, support in planning and policy formulation geared to promote agricultural sector which the majority of the rural population depends on livelihood and it is their main source of income. In addition, the collected information provides benchmark data for monitoring and evaluating effectiveness of rural development initiatives.
The 2019/20 National Sample Census of Agriculture was designed to meet the data needs of a wide range of users down to district level including policy makers at local, regional and national levels, rural development agencies, funding institutions, researchers, NGOs, farmer’s organizations. The dataset is both extensive in its sample and detailed in its scope to meet the user demand.
The key objectives of the Census were three-fold:
i). To identify structural changes if any, in the size of farm household holdings, crop and livestock production, farm inputs and farm implement use. It also seeks to determine if there are any improvement in rural infrastructures and the level of agriculture household living conditions;
ii). Provision of benchmark data on productivity, production and agricultural practices in relation to policies and interventions promoted by the Agricultural Sector Lead Ministries (ASLMs) and other stakeholders; and;
iii). Establishment of baseline data for the measurement of the impact of high-level objectives of the Agriculture Sector Development Programme Phase II (ASDP II).
The 2019/20 National Sample Census of Agriculture was conducted for both large scale farms and smallholder farmers. This report covers information of smallholder farmers in details with some
summary data from large scale farms in order to provide complete national estimates for some variables such astotal livestock population, crop production etc. The data was collected from a sample of 33,808 smallholder farmers, of which 32,008 were from Mainland Tanzania and 1,800 from Tanzania Zanzibar. Data was also collected from 1,093 large scale farms (1,018 were from Mainland Tanzania and 75 in Tanzania Zanzibar) on a complete enumeration basis.
The census covered agriculture in detail as well as many other aspects of rural development and was
conducted using three different questionnaires
i). Smallholder farmers questionnaire
ii). Large scale farms questionnaire
iii).Community level questionnaire
The smallholder farmers questionnaire was the main census instrument and main topics covered were
a) Household information
b) Land access/ownership/tenure
c) Land use
d) Conservational farming
e) Access and use of resources
f) Annual and permanent crops production
g) Main use of crop residuals
i) Crop storage
j) On farm investments
k) Access and use of credit for agricultural purposes
l) Crop extension services
m) Livestock production and products
n) Outlet for sales of livestock
o) Livestock structures/accessories
p) Livestock pest & parasite control
q) Livestock extension
r) Livestock extension service providers
s) Government regulatory challenges
t) Fish farming
u) Bee keeping
v) Labour use
w) Subsistence vs non-subsistence
x) Access to infrastructure and other services
y) Agricultural constraints
z) Market information
aa) Poverty indicators at household level
The large-scale farm questionnaire was administered to large farms which were either privately or corporately managed. Some data from the large scale farms’ questionnaire are incorporated in this report, however an in-depth analysis of large scale farms is presented in a separate report. The community level questionnaire was designed to collect village level data such as access and use of common resources, community tree plantations and seasonal farm gate prices.
Kind of Data
Census/enumeration data [cen]
Unit of Analysis
Individuals, Households, Large Scale Farms and Communities
Version 01 (Public use file for web dissemination)
The census used three different questionnaires:
SMALLHOLDER FARMERS QUESTIONNAIRE was the main census instrument and it included questions related to crop and livestock production and practices; population demographics; access to services, community resources and infrastructure; issues on poverty and gender. Data were collecvted at Household level.
The main topics covered were:
- Household demographics and activities of the household members
- Land access, ownership, tenure and use
- Crop and livestock production and productivity
- Access to inputs and farming implements
- Access and use of credit
- Access to infrastructure (roads, district and regional headquarters, markets, advisory services, schools, hospitals).
- Crop marketing, storage and agro processing
- Tree farming, agro-forestry, and fish farming
- Access and use of communal resources (grazing land, communal forests, water for humans and livestock, beekeeping)
- Investment activities ( irrigation structures, water harvesting, erosion control, fencing)
- Off farm income and non agricultural related activities
- Households living conditions (housing, sanitary facilities )
- Livelihood constraints
- Poverty Indicators
COMMUNITY LEVEL questionnaire was designed to collect village level data such as access and use of common resources, community tree plantation and seasonal farm gate prices.
LARGE SCALE FARM questionnaire was administered to large farms either privately or corporately managed
The Survey Covered all Agricultural Households and Large Scale farms
Producers and sponsors
National Bureau of Statistics
Ministry of Finance and Planning
Office of the Chief Government Statistician, Zanzibar (OCGS)
Revolutionary Government of Zanzibar
United States Agency for International Development
United States Department of Agriculture United States Department of Agriculture
Food and Agriculture Organization
The National Master Sample developed by National Bureau of Statistics (NBS) and Office of the Chief Government Statistician (OCGS) to serve as national framework for conducting householdbased survey in the country was used to design the 2019/20 National Sample Census of Agriculture (NSCA). The 2019/20 sample was designed to provide estimates disaggregated at regional and district levels for both Mainland Tanzania and Tanzania Zanzibar.
The 2019/20 NSCA adopted a two-stage design with census enumeration areas as Primary Sampling Units (PSUs) and households as second-stage units. The stage one sampling frame comprises of selection of urban and rural EAs from the 2012 Population and Housing Census frame. The EAs were explicitly sorted by Region and District before employing a Probability Proportionate to Size (PPS).
The second stage was the selection of agricultural farming households from the selected EAs for data collection.
1.4.2 Sample Size
A total of 2,820 PSUs were selected from the 2012 Population and Housing Census (PHC) frame of which 2,670 PSUs were from Mainland Tanzania and 150 from Tanzania Zanzibar. Out of
these, 2,560 PSUs were from rural and 260 from urban areas. The number of households differed from one PSU to another, it ranged from 5 to 30 households, making a total number of 33,808 households (32,008 households from Mainland Tanzania and 1,800 from Tanzania Zanzibar). The probability of selecting a household depended on the total number of households in the PSU. The sample was higher for rural EAs than urban EAs. The technic was designed to give estimates of different parameters with the error margin of 5 percent at 95 percent confidence leve
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
Computer Assisted Personal Interview [capi]
Data Collection Notes
Data collection was monitored by a hierarchical system of supervisors which included the Mobile Response Team, Regional and District Supervisors. The Mobile Response Team, which was headed by the Manager of Agriculture Statistics Department, provided an overall direction to the field operations and responded to queries arising outside the scope of the training exercise. Decisions made on the definitions and procedures were then communicated back to the enumerators via the Regional and District Supervisors
National Bureau of Statistics
Ministry of Finance and Planning
1. Large Scale Questionnaire
2. Smallholder Questionnaire
3. Community Questionnaire
- Batch Edits validation program developed using CSPro was used for editting the data. It was used to identify data inconsistencies and correct them.
- CSpro, Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) and STATA were used during analysis stage and production of the Census tables
- Microsoft Excel was used to organize the tables, charts and compute additional indicators
-Arc GIS (Geographical Information System) was used in producing the maps.
- Microsoft Word was used in compiling and writing up the reports
Confidentiality of respodents is guaranteed by The Statistics Act, [Cap 351 R.E 2019]
Before being granted access to the dataset, all users have formally agree:
1.All identifying information such as the name and address of respondent has been removed; and
2.The information is disclosed in a manner that is not likely to enable the identification of the
particular person or undertaking or business to which it relates.
3.Not attempt to identify any particular person or undertaking or business;
4.Use of information for research or statistically purpose only;
5.Not to disclose the information to any other person, organization
6.When required by the Statistician General, return all documents made available to him to the Statistician Generall;
7.Comply with the directions given by the Statistician General relating to the records.
8.Every person involved in the research or statistical project for which information is disclosed pursuant to this
section shall make the declaration of secrecy set out in the first schedule.
Public use files accessible to all for statistical and research purposes only, under the following terms and conditions:
1.The data and other material will not be redistributed or sold to other individuals, institutions, or organization without
the written agreement of the National Bureau of Statistics.
2. The data will be used for statistical and scientific research purposes only. They will be used solely for reporting of
aggregated information, and not for investigation of specific individuals or organizations.
3. No attempt will be made to produce links among dataset provided by the National Bureau of Statistics, or among
data from the (National Bureau of Statistics) and other datasets that could identify individuals or organizations
4. No attempt will be made to re-identify respondents, and no use will be made of the identify of any person or
establishment discovered inadvertently. Any such discovery would immediately be reported to the National Bureau
5. Any books, articles, conference papers, theses, dissertations, reports, or other publications that employ data
obtained from the National Bureau of Statistics will cite the source of data in accordance with the Citation
Requirement provided with each dataset.
Use of the dataset must be acknowledged using a citation which would include:
- the Identification of the Primary Investigator
- the title of the survey (including country, acronym and year of implementation)
- the survey reference number
- the source and date of download
National Bureau of Statistics. National Sample Census of Agriculture 2019/20, Public Use File. Ref.TZA-NBS-NSCA-2019-v01. Downloaded from [https://www.nbs.go.tz/tnada] on [date].
"The user of the data should acknowledges that, National Bureau of Statistics is the original collector of the data , the authorised distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences without a written agreement from the National Bureau of Statistics"